|Bone marrow as the term somewhat explains is the spongy tissue inside few bones , such as the hip and thigh. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The stem cells can develop into red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells, which fight infections, and platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a person's diseased bone marrow cells. Bone marrow transplantation is performed for patients with certain聽cancers聽of the聽blood聽or聽bone marrow, such as聽multiple myeloma聽or聽leukaemia.聽In such cases, the patient鈥檚 immune system is usually destroyed by chemotherapy before the transplantation. This procedure is complex and is performed by specialised oncologist or a surgeon. These transplants are mainly used in cases of :
2. Severe blood diseases such as聽thalassemia,聽aplastic anaemia, and聽sickle cell anaemia
3. Multiple myeloma
4. Certain immune deficiency diseases
There are 3 types of bone marrow transplantation:
logous (patient鈥檚 own stem cells are used
geneic (stem cells come from a donor)
eneic (from an identical twin)
Autologous bone marrow transplantation
The term auto means self. Stem cells are removed from patient before giving high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatment. The stem cells are stored and after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation treatments, stems cells are put back in patient鈥檚 body to make normal blood cells; which probably explains why this type of transplantation is called a rescue transplant.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
At times, stem cells need to be obtained from an external source, known as the donor. However, another person鈥檚 genes may not match the patient鈥檚 genes, completely but only partially and hence certain tests need to be carried out, to ascertain the suitability criteria. A brother or sister is most likely to be a good match. Sometimes parents, children, and other relatives are good matches.
Syngeneic bone marrow transplantation
An identical twin is an ideal donor because of the genetic identity between the donor and recipient. It is like using one's own cells, except that the cells are not damaged from prior exposure to chemotherapy, and the risk to tumour cell contamination is is usually questioned that who can be a donor? Can any of the family member donate bone marrow?
To be a donor it is important that donor鈥檚 genes should match with that of the recipient鈥檚.
If you are the brother or sister of someone needing bone marrow or stem cells, you might be a match. There is a 1 in 4 chance of your cells matching. Anyone else in the family is unlikely to match. It is sometimes possible to get a match from a matched unrelated donor.
For knowing whether the genes of donor matches with that of recipient or not specific test is performed 鈥?HLA typing or tissue typing.
Paediatric bone marrow transplantation
Paediatric bone marrow transplant is a treatment for children with certain types of cancer or other diseases. The goal of BMT is to replace a child鈥檚 diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. The success rate of paediatric bone marrow transplantation is around 80-90%.
Bone marrow transplantation is a life saviour for the people suffering from different types of blood cancers.
Along with its benefits there are some risks too. The risks of bone marrow transplantation are:
1. Venous occlusion disease
2. Infections such as sepsis
3. Graft-versus-host disease
4. Development of new malignancies
All the benefits and complications are told to the patient by their respective oncologist before the bone marrow transplant.
Bone marrow transplantation is the best hope for a cure or a longer life for patients suffering from blood cancer.
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Dell Printer Cartridges: OEM Vs Remanufactured Vs Compatible Cartridges Computers Articles | December 20, 2011
Your choice of Dell replacement cartridges ultimately depends on your needs and your budget. This article discusses your different options when it comes to Dell printer cartridges.
Dell printers are the choice of many when it comes to purchasing printers. Whether you are printing reports, school papers, visual aids, office presentations, pictures, or scrapbook pages; you will find that Dell printers are just the thing for producing materials for everyday projects especially for work and for school. If you are a printer owner, of course, you want to make sure that the printer is running smoothly and that it produces prints with sharp images and vivid colors. Thus, it is important that you choose the right type of Dell printer cartridges for your printer.?
The printer cartridge is the part of the printer that holds the ink and also the print head. They?are usually disposable, to be replaced when the ink is already used up. If you are thinking about replacing the Dell printer cartridges of your printer, it is very important that you know your choices and your options. One of the basic things that a printer owner must know is the different kinds of replacement products.
OEM cartridges are the brand-name cartridges produced by the manufacturer of the printer. The term OEM is short for original equipment manufacturer. Original Dell printer cartridges are one example of OEM cartridges. This type of replacement printer cartridges is the most compatible with your printer because they are specially designed and created for that kind of printer.
OEM cartridges are also your safest and sometimes the only option particularly if the printer manufacturer has fixed computer chips inside the cartridge. In these s.